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鋼錠

2019-10-31
鋼錠
詳細介紹:

鋼水經盛鋼包注入鑄模凝固形成鋼錠。鋼液在煉鋼爐中冶煉完成后,必須鑄成一定形狀的錠或坯才能進行加工。用鑄模鑄成鋼錠的工藝過程簡稱為鑄錠。

鋼錠至今仍是軋鋼生產的主要原料。鋼錠質量的優劣、錠型的狀況以及其重量大小對軋鋼生產有著十分重要的作用。在軋鋼生產中除各類初軋機可選用鋼錠作原料外,一些特殊用途軋機、部分中厚板軋機也用鋼錠為原料,我國不少地方中小企業的開坯機成品軋機也選用小鋼錠作原料。鋼錠選擇的內容主要是正確地選擇鋼錠種類、它的重量以及斷面形狀和尺寸大小。


鋼錠的用途廣泛,按照其經鍛壓、軋制成材的產品類型,可分為以下幾類。


電力用鋼


電力用鋼包括核電、火電、風電、水電等用鋼。

核電:用于核島的核心部件,如蒸發器、主管道、堆芯支撐板、彎管板和發電機組的低壓轉子等大型部件,除要求高強度、高韌性、高均質性外,有的還要求耐核輻射,多采用電渣重熔鋼錠制造,錠重達715t。


水電:大型水力發電站用發電機轉子、機座、船閘閘門等,要求高強度、高韌性、高潔凈度。


火電:超臨界火力發電機的汽包、發電機座、汽輪發電機轉子等,要求高溫強度、高潔凈度、抗蠕變性能。


風電:用于底座、立桿和風力發電機軸的制造。


機械制造用鋼


機械制造業是鋼錠的大用戶,特別是目前我國已成為世界機械制造大國,大型機械不但要滿足國內需求,還需要大規模出口。其中冶金機械中的大型礦山用破碎機、球磨機,大型高爐爐殼,轉爐托圈、轉軸及傳動系統,寬厚板軋機工作輥、支承輥及萬向接軸、主電機軸,無縫鋼管軋機的浮動芯棒、限動芯棒和其他各類軋機的軋輥、軸承、軸承座等均由鋼錠經鍛造制作;大型礦山機械中的挖掘機鏟斗、鏟臂,起重機吊臂等也是如此。下圖是5000~5500mm寬

厚板軋機的支承輥,直徑Φ2200~2400mm,重240t。


高層建筑用鋼


隨著建筑業的發展,鋼結構高層建筑層出不窮,如迪拜塔、上海中心等。200m以上的高層建筑為了抗震、防風和防火的需要,多做成鋼結構的主框架,其結構可由鋼錠軋成的特厚板,經剪裁加工、焊接制成,要求高強度、抗震性和Z向性能。


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The molten steel is injected into the mold through the ladle and solidified to form a steel ingot. After the molten steel is smelted in the steelmaking furnace, it must be cast into a certain shape of the ingot or billet for processing. The process of casting a steel ingot by a mold is simply referred to as an ingot.


Steel ingots are still the main raw material for rolling steel production. The quality of the ingot, the condition of the ingot type and its weight play a very important role in rolling steel production. In the steel rolling production, in addition to various types of roughing mills, steel ingots can be used as raw materials. Some special-purpose rolling mills and some medium-thick plate mills also use steel ingots as raw materials. In many local small and medium-sized enterprises, the mills for rolling mills also use small steel ingots as raw materials. . The selection of ingots is mainly to correctly select the type of ingot, its weight, and the shape and size of the section.


Steel ingots are widely used, and can be classified into the following categories according to the types of products that are forged and rolled.


Power steel


Power steel includes nuclear power, thermal power, wind power, hydropower and other steel.


Nuclear power: large components such as evaporators, main pipes, core support plates, elbow plates and low-voltage rotors of generator sets, except for high strength, high toughness and high homogeneity. It also requires nuclear radiation resistance, and is made of electroslag remelted steel ingots with an ingot weight of 715t.


Hydropower: Generator rotors, bases, ship lock gates, etc. for large hydroelectric power stations require high strength, high toughness and high cleanliness.


Thermal power: steam drums, generator bases, turbine generator rotors, etc. of supercritical thermal power generators require high temperature strength, high cleanliness and creep resistance.


Wind power: Used in the manufacture of bases, poles and wind turbine shafts.


Mechanical manufacturing steel


The machinery manufacturing industry is a large user of steel ingots. In particular, China has become a major machinery manufacturing country in the world. Large-scale machinery not only needs to meet domestic demand, but also needs large-scale exports. Among them, large-scale mine crushers, ball mills, large blast furnace shells, converter support rings, rotating shafts and transmission systems, wide and thick plate mill work rolls, backup rolls and universal joint shafts, main motor shafts, seamless steel tube mills Floating mandrels, mandrel bars and other types of rolling mill rolls, bearings, bearing blocks, etc. are all forged from steel ingots; the same is true for excavator buckets, shovel arms, crane booms, etc. in large mining machinery. The figure below is 5000~5500mm wide


The support roller of the plate mill has a diameter of Φ2200~2400mm and a weight of 240t.


High-rise building steel


With the development of the construction industry, high-rise steel structures emerge in an endless stream, such as the Burj Khalifa and the Shanghai Center. For the purpose of earthquake resistance, wind protection and fire prevention, high-rise buildings of more than 200m are mostly made into the main frame of steel structure. The structure can be made of special thick plate rolled from steel ingots. It is made by cutting and welding, and requires high strength, shock resistance and Z. To performance.

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